phil 1

Phil 1 Feb.31. A very big problem,
Everything beyond the Cogito relies on the C&D Principle: if I clearly and distinctly perception that P, then P must be true.
Why should we accept that principleDescartes’s answer: Go d guarantees it.2. The Cartesian Circle
1) If I clearly and distinctly perceive that P, then P must be true.
2) God would not deceive me (when I use my faculties extremely carefully).
I only know (1) if I first know (2).
I only know (2) if I first know (1).3. Metaphysics: ultimate nature of things
What is the nature of the mindHow is the mind related to the body
4. Cartesian Dualism
1) The mind is distinct from the body
The mind and the body are two fundamentally different kinds of things
The mind can exist without the body (or any part of the body)
The body can exist without the mind.
2) The mind is an immaterial (or non-physical), thinking substance.
The mind is a thinking thing.
It is not extended; it doesn’t take up space or have a shape or size.
3) There is a direct causal interaction between my mind and my body.
The interaction is causal, not casual.
My body affects my mind; bodily events cause mental events. (Body-Mind Causation)
My mind affects my body; mental events cause physical events. (Mind-Body Causation)5. Materialism (Physicalism)
1) The mind is not distinct from the body.
The mind is identical to the body or to some part of the body (perhaps the brain).
Notice that this is different from saying the mind is an effect of the body.
The mind and the body are the same kind of thing.
2) The mind is a material (or physical), thinking substance.
The mind is a thinking thing.
Notice that the dualist and the materialist agree about this.
It is extended; it takes up space.
3) The mind is simply part of the body, so it can causally interact with other parts of the body.
All mind-body causation is simply body-body causation.
Bodily events (some of which are mental) cause other bodily…

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